This study focuses on the Syrian independent exile media (SEM) organisations and institutions that have developed since the 2011 uprising. These media emerged and developed amid a war of unprecedented scope and complexity; a war that has taken a heavy toll on Syria’s civilians and displaced a huge portion of its population. The dynamics of the war and its impact on the ground forced most if not all of the independent media organisations and institutions that emerged after 2011 to leave Syria.
The study is divided into two parts: 1. Independent exile media globally — practices, policies and lessons learned; and 2. Syrian exile organisations and institutions.